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Animal Husbandary

Animal Husbandry is a state subject and the State Governments are primarily responsible for the growth of the sector. The Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying & Fisheries has, however, been operating 30 Central Livestock Organizations and allied Institutions for production and distribution of superior germ plasms to the State Governments for cross breeding and genetic upgradation of the stocks. Besides, the Department has been implementing 11 Central Sector and Centrally Sponsored Schemes for the development of requisite infrastructure and supplementing the efforts of the State Governments for achieving the accelerated growth of animal husbandry sector.

Following are promoted by the Animal Husbandry Division:

Click each option for detail information

Genetic Upgradation

Other Schemes


Dairy Development

Dairying has become an important secondary source of income for millions of rural families and has assumed a most important role in providing employment and income generating opportunity. Indian Dairying is unique in more than one ways. It ranks first with its 185.2 million cattle & 97.9 million buffaloes accounting for about 51 percent of Asia ’s and about 19 per cent of world’s bovine population. It also ranks first in milk production with a production of 100.9 million tones in 2006-07.

Contributing about 5.3 per cent to India ’s agricultural GDP, milk is a leading agricultural produce. The value output from milk at current prices during 2006-07 has been over Rs.144386 crores which is higher than the output from paddy (Rs.85032 crore) alone and is also higher than the value output from Wheat (Rs.66721 crore) and sugarcane (Rs.28488 crore), put together. The unique feature of the system is that about 120 million rural families are engaged in milk production activities as against big specialized dairy farmers in the west.

During the post independence period, progress made in dairy sector has been spectacular. Milk production has increased more than four folds from a mere 17 million tones during 1950-51 to 104.8 million tones in 2007-08. However, the country’s per capita availability is still lower than the world’s daily average of about 285 gms though it has doubled from 124 gms in 1950-51 to 256gms per day in 2007-08. This impressive growth effort speaks volume about the co-coordinated efforts of large number of milk producing farmers, scientists, planners, NGO’s and industry in achieving self-sufficiency in milk production.

Another notable feature of Indian dairying sector is that buffaloes contribute more than 53 per cent of the country’s total milk production. Buffaloes are known for their efficiency as converter of coarse feeds into rich milk. Similarly about 45% of total cow milk produced is contributed by crossbred cows.

In spite of India ’s position as highest producer of milk, productivity per animal is very poor. It is only about 987 kg/lactation as against world average of 2,038 kg/lactation. This low productivity is due to the gradual genetic deterioration and general neglect of animals over the centuries and consequent to the rise in the population of non-descript cows (80%) and buffaloes (50%). Other factors contributing to low productivity include continuing draughts in some parts of the country, chronic shortages of feed & fodder coupled with their poor nutritive value and poor fertility of dairy animals. Hence we have to face a twin challenge: increase milk productivity of animals with the limited resources on one hand and make best use of the available milk by processing it into hygienic packaged milk and milk products of high quality.


Government is actively supporting the dairy sector by implementing various schemes. It all started with the White Revolution under the title Operation Flood (OF) Programme launched in 1970. By promoting Anand Pattern of dairy cooperatives, OF envisaged sustained increase in resource productivity culminating in improved quality of life of milk producers and assured supply of quality of milk and other dairy products to consumers at reasonable price in a free market environment. Following the cooperative path, market oriented milk production and modernization of dairying, milk production, processing and marketing progressed significantly. The bedrock of Operation Flood has been village milk producers’ cooperatives, which procure milk and provide inputs and services making modern management and technology availale to members.

The objectives of Operation Flood included:

  • Increased milk production ("a flood of milk")
  • Augmenting rural incomes
  • Ensuring fair prices for consumers


The programme was implemented with the assistance of World Bank and Food Aid from the European Economic Community (EEC). The commodities assistance was also provided from the World Food Programme in the form of milk powder and butter oil. In all, an amount of approximately Rs. 1750 crore was invested in the dairy cooperative sector. This amount was disbursed as 30% grant and 70% loan. The milk processing capacity established was 200 lakh litres per day and average rural milk procurement was 137 lakh litres per day. The programme was implemented between 1970-1996 and covered 170 milk sheds falling under 22 State Cooperative Federations.

In OF areas, the country has more than 1 lakh organized primary village dairy cooperatives at present with an agreegate membership of 1.1 crore producers. These primaries are federated into 170 district cooperative milk unions and further to state cooperative dairy federations. The dairy cooperative network is estimated t have collected close to 229 lakh kilograms per day in 2007-08 resulting in the payment of an aggregate amount exceeding Rs.7000 crores to the milk producers during the year. The average milk marketing and procurement by cooperatives during the last four years is given below:-



Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying & Fisheries


Ministry of Agriculture, Govt. of India




Fisheries sector occupies a very important place in the socio-economic development of the country. It has been recognized as a powerful income and employment generator as it stimulates growth of a number of subsidiary industries, and is a source of cheap and nutritious food besides being a foreign exchange earner. Most importantly, it is the source of livelihood for a large section of economically backward population of the country. The main challenges facing fisheries development in the country includes accurate data on assessment of fishery resources and their potential in terms of fish production, development of sustainable technologies for fin and shell fish culture, yield optimization, harvest and post-harvest operations, landing and berthing facilities for fishing vessels and welfare of fishermen.


Thrust Areas

Fishery is a State subject and as such the primary responsibility for development rests with the State Governments. The major thrust in fisheries development has been focused on optimizing production and productivity, augmenting export of fishery products, generating employment and improving welfare of fishermen and their socio-economic status.


  • There has been significant growth in fish production in the country in the recent years. India is now the third largest producer of fish and second largest producer of fresh water fish in the world.
  • Fish production during the year 2008-09 was 76.2 lakh tonnes comprising 29.8  lakh tonnes of marine fish and 46.4 lakh tonnes of inland fish.
  • Fish seed production during 2007-08 was 24143.57  million fry.
  • A network of 429 Fish Farmers’ Development Agencies (FFDA’s) has been set up covering all the potential districts in all the States and Union Territories for propagating freshwater aquaculture. 
  • With a view to provide technical, financial and extension support to shrimp farmers in the small scale sector, 39 Brackishwater Fish Farmers Development Agencies (BFDA’s) have been set up in all the coastal States and the UT of Andaman & Nicobar Islands.   
  • Due to introduction of improved technology of fish farming and the efforts of FFDAs ,the national average productivity of ponds and tanks covered under the programme has reached 2600 kg/ha per annum
  • Under the Centrally Sponsored Schemes (CSS) for motorization of traditional crafts a total of about 42,950 approx.  have been motorized so far. 



Fish Production
(Lakh tonne)