National Animal Disease Reporting System
(Sponsored by Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying and Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India)
1.1 The National Animal Disease Reporting System, in short NADRS, is a new Centrally Sponsored Scheme proposed for implementation during last three years of the 11th Five Year Plan with cent percent Central assistance. The Planning Commission has already approved its inclusion in the list of schemes identified for implementation by the Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying & Fisheries (DADF) during the 11th Plan.
1.1 India has a large animal population comprising, as per Livestock Census (2003), 485 million of livestock and a one-time count of 489 million poultry. Majority of the livestock, including poultry, are reared in rural areas where two-third of the people own one or the other animal. These living assets contribute to the poor in a wide variety of ways, providing supplementary income and much needed nutrition for the family. Livestock also plays an important role in India’s economy, contributing (along with fisheries) 5.21% to the country’s GDP and 31.6% to the agriculture GDP in 2007-08. Their share in the GDP of the arid regions is as high as 70% and that of the semi-arid regions 40%. Progress of this sector results in balanced development of the rural economy, particularly in reducing poverty among weaker sections of the rural population. This is one sector where poor people contribute to growth directly instead of just benefiting from the growth generated elsewhere.
1.2 The livestock sector has immense potential. It has emerged as the key driver of agricultural growth in the country. The biggest impediment to growth of this sector, however, is the large-scale prevalence of diseases such as Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD), Haemorrhagic Septicaemia (HS), Black Quarter (BQ) in cattle, Enterotoxaemia, Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) & Sheep-Goat Pox in sheep and goats and Swine Fever in pigs, which drastically affect the productivity of animals. The presence of animal diseases also deters domestic and foreign investment in the livestock sector. These diseases not only wreck havoc on the existing stock but also constrain market access to our livestock sector, in spite of the fact that we have ample scope to participate in the global trade. It is projected that by the year 2020, over 60% of meat and 50% of milk will be produced in the developing countries. Within the developing countries, Asia will be the key production hub and India and China the primary producers of milk and meat. The country needs to gear itself for the opportunity.
1.3 The economic impact of the diseases in livestock results from both morbidity and mortality and the consequent production losses. This includes the direct losses due to mortality, reduced production in terms of milk, meat, wool, hide and skins, as well as indirect loss due to abortions, subsequent infertility, sterility, and deterioration of semen quality.
1.4 Controlling animal diseases is the best way to take rural poor out of poverty. By improving the productivity of animals on which people depend for their livelihood, it offers them a definite source of income. The pathway out of poverty involves improving the volume of the product marketed, and / or the quality of product, thereby increasing the revenue obtained. Access to this pathway is dependent on the control of diseases that either limit the movement of livestock or their products, or constrain the potential purchasers investing in them due to their poor quality with respect to food safety.
1.5 At present, an animal disease is primarily recorded by the veterinary doctor working in a Government hospital / dispensary on the basis of clinical diagnosis. This information is passed on to the Taluka / Block level and then to the District and the State veterinary authorities. Disease information is also generated from the disease diagnostic laboratories at the District, State or regional level on the basis of laboratory diagnosis. Finally, information from State level is transmitted to the Central Government, i.e., the Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying & Fisheries (DADF) in New Delhi. The DADF notifies the World Animal Health Organisation (OIE) and other international organizations, as appropriate. The present system of animal disease reporting is shown below diagrammatically:
Existing System of Animal Disease Reporting
1.1 The present system of animal disease reporting is not satisfactory for the following reasons:
1.1.1 The disease reporting is neither timely nor complete. As a result of reliance on postal means of communication, the reports and returns take considerable time and some are also lost in transit. Hence, the compiled information does not represent true picture of the disease situation at any given point of time.
1.1.2 The veterinary services available in the country are grossly inadequate. As a result, a large portion of the livestock owners do not have access to the Government veterinary services. These people rely on either the traditional systems of veterinary medicine or the private veterinary services. These incidences of animal diseases remain out of the reporting system. Their number is believed to be significant.
1.2 In the prevailing situation, many times animal diseases assume serious proportion before control and containment steps can be initiated, thereby causing avoidable social and economic costs on the livestock owners and the country’s economy.
1.3 In order to bring about desired change to the existing situation, it is proposed to introduce a computerized system of animal disease reporting, linking each Taluka / Block, District and State Headquarters to a Central Disease Reporting and Monitoring Unit at the DADF in New Delhi. The diagrams given below depict the NADRS contemplated diagrammatically, along with various agencies who would be expected to contribute data to the system and its transmission to the Central Monitoring Unit in the DADF at New Delhi:
1.1 The reporting system envisaged will enable the Block, District and State animal health officials to report the disease information and render reports and returns prescribed in this regard via internet. The system will be so designed as to assure secure data transfer and confidentiality of information. At the apex level, NADRS will compile and generate animal disease information for the country as a whole. The users will have access to the information as per permissions in consonance with their role and responsibilities envisaged under the system. This computerized system, proposed to be called ‘National Animal Disease Reporting System’ (in short NADRS), will enable fuller and timely reporting of the animal disease situation in the country, enabling its effective management.
1.1 The livestock diseases cause huge economic losses not only to their owners but to the economy at large. These losses are both of direct and indirect nature on account of the morbidity and the mortality in affected animals. While direct losses occur due to mortality in animals, indirect losses happen due to their reduced production of milk, meat, wool, hide and skins, abortions, subsequent infertility, sterility and deterioration in semen quality. Effective monitoring of diseases will enable their early control, prevention of their spread and reduction of economic losses caused by them. This will also help meet trade commitments related to a national surveillance system.
1.2 As a result of the information that would emerge from the NADRS, it would be possible to develop disease forecasting models, leading to development of disease prevention strategies.As the proposed scheme aims at effective monitoring the occurrence of livestock diseases with a view to enabling their early control, it will result in improving the livestock health in the country. By the very nature of the benefits that would accrue, these cannot be quantified in concrete terms. There is, however, no doubt that implementation of the scheme will yield immediate benefits to the livestock owners and to the economy by way of better health status of animals, prevention of losses due to their morbidity and mortality and improvement in the quality of their products. The benefits likely to accrue to livestock owners and to the economy may be summarized below:-
Benefits to livestock owners
· Better management of diseases of their livestock.
· Availability of veterinary service.
· Increased economic gain from higher productivity of animals.
· Improved market acceptability of their livestock products.
Benefits to animal husbandry administration
· Availability of a common channel for dissemination of animal disease information to all stakeholders.
· Availability of SMS-based instant alert system for outbreak of diseases, spread of diseases, remedial measures and expert advice, enabling prompt control of diseases.
· Availability of enhanced decision support system with GIS integration for effective and timely decision making.
Benefits to economy
· Increased livestock production and productivity.
· Improved market acceptability of domestic livestock products in international trade.
· Saving of costs otherwise incurred for treatment of animals.
· Fillip to the growth of the livestock sector, leading to increased employment generation and higher availability of animal protein to the population.
1.3 The NADRS will involve a computerized network, integrating both MIS and GIS, which would link each block, district and the State/UT headquarters in the country to the Central Disease Reporting & Monitoring Unit (CDRMU) in the DADF at New Delhi. All the notifiable diseases scheduled in the `The Prevention and Control of Infectious & Contagious Diseases in Animals Act 2009’ (27 of 2009) will be included in the reporting system (Annexure – I).
1.4 The proposed network will involve a web platform accessible through internet and intranet. The CDRMU will have the following servers:
· Web Portal / Application / Authentication Server
This server shall be responsible for hosting the web applications and the NADRS Portal. Content Management shall be done on this server. This server shall also act as the Authentication / Authorization server to authenticate and authorize users who access these applications.
· Database Server
This shall be the central repository for storage of Animal Disease database. Access to this server shall be through the web applications hosted on the Web Portal/ Application Server.
· SMS Server
This server shall be used for sending and receiving alerts in the form of Simple Messages to the external users. The alerts shall be related to various Animal disease outbreaks, methods to tackle & eradicate the diseases, remedial actions, expert advices etc. Various forms of alerts are sent to the stakeholders through the SMS server via Mobile Service Providers.
· GIS Application Server
This server shall be used for all GIS related activities. Different applications shall be available on this server which shall in turn be used by the Decision Support System in order to provide the spatial data to the end users.
· GIS Database Server
This server shall be used for storage of spatial database related to animal diseases. The Decision Support System (DSS) and other related applications shall fetch spatial data from this server.
· SAN Storage
In order to store the huge volume of data at a centralized set-up, the CDRMU shall have a SAN box with a minimum capacity of 2TB expandable up to 5 TB.
· Internal Users
The department users will connect to the CDRMU site through LAN on 10/100 Mbps wired network nodes.
An illustrative technical architecture diagram is shown on the next page:
1.1 The Disease Diagnostic Laboratories at the District, State and the National level will also be part of the computerized network. The veterinary colleges / universities will also form part of the NADRS.
1.2 A Committee comprising of the representatives of the DADF, State Governments, Veterinary Council of India and the NIC was constituted in the month of February, 2009 to develop User Requirement Specifications (URS) of the proposed system. The said Committee has submitted its report. The URS proposed by the Committee have been gone through and required modifications also incorporated. These would again come up for scrutiny in the course of the URS validation exercise required to be undertaken by the NIC before software development.
1.3 It is proposed to entrust the National Informatics Center (NIC), inter alia, with following responsibilities:
- Validation of the User Requirement Specifications.
- Development of Application Software.
- Identification, procurement and supply of the appropriate System Software.
- Development of training material and training the manpower at the national level and in the States up to the Block level.
- Hosting and maintenance of the application.
- Procurement and delivery of the required hardware up to the Block level.
- Arranging and overseeing procurement, installation and maintenance of the internet connections up to the Block level.
1.4 The NIC has already developed several systems integrating the MIS and GIS for the Govt. of India. The relevant outputs of these systems would also be available to the extent relevant for NADRS. This would save time, money and effort on development of the GPS mapping of animal health facilities at Village, Block, District, State and the National level, which would otherwise need to be duplicated if the responsibility is entrusted to a private software development company.
1.5 On the basis of detailed consultations held with the NIC, the time-frame for various deliverables has been formulated from the zero date of the approval of the proposal by the EFC
1.6 The software development, provision of hardware, maintenance of hardware and software and training of the manpower up to the Block level will be the responsibility of the NIC, which is the premier agency of the Govt. of India for implementing IT solutions to support development administration in the country.
1.7 As the proposed scheme aims at monitoring the livestock health situation with a view to securing improvement in the health status of the livestock in the country, its yield cannot be quantified in monetary terms.
1.8 The Working Group on the subject of Animal Husbandry & Dairy Development for the 11th Plan constituted by the Planning Commission and the Working Group of the Sub-committee of the National Development Council on Agriculture and related issues in Animal Husbandry, Dairying & Fisheries have both underlined need for improvement in the disease reporting in the country.
Annexure - I
List of the notifiable diseases (as scheduled in `The Prevention and Control of Infectious and Contagious Diseases in Animals Act, 2009)
1. Multiple species diseases
- Aujeszky's disease
- Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever
- Foot and mouth disease
- Japanese encephalitis
- New world screwworm (Cochliomyia hominivorax)
- Old world screwworm (Chrysomya bezziana)
- Q fever
- Rift Valley fever
- Vesicular stomatitis
- West Nile fever
2. Cattle diseases
- Bovine anaplasmosis
- Bovine babesiosis
- Bovine genital campylobacteriosis
- Bovine spongiform encephalopathy
- Bovine tuberculosis
- Bovine viral diarrhea
- Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia
- Enzootic bovine leucosis
- Haemorrhagic septicaemia
- Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis/infectious-pustular-vulvovaginitis
- Lumpky skin disease
- Malignant catarrhal fever
3. Sheep and goat diseases
- Caprine arthritis/encephalitis
- Contagious agalactia
- Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia
- Enzootic abortion of ewes (ovine chlamydiosis)
- Nairobi sheep disease
- Ovine epididymitis (Brucella ovis)
- Peste des petits ruminants
- Salmonellosis (S. abortusovis)
- Sheep pox and goat pox
4. Equine diseases
- African horse sickness
- Contagious equine metritis
- Equine encephalomyelitis (Eastern)
- Equine encephalomyelitis (Western)
- Equine infectious anaemia
- Equine influenza
- Equine piroplasmosis
- Equine rhinopneumonitis
- Equine viral arteritis
- Surra (Trypanosoma evansi)
- Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis
5. Swine diseases
- African swine fever
- Classical swine fever
- Nipah virus encephalitis
- Porcine cysticercosis
- Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome
- Swine vesicular disease
- Transmissible gastroenteritis
6. Avian diseases
- Avian chlamydiosis
- Avian infectious bronchitis
- Avian infectious laryngotracheitis
- Avian mycoplasmosis (M. gallisepticum)
- Avian mycoplasmosis (M. synoviae)
- Duck virus hepatitis
- Fowl cholera
- Fowl typhoid
- Highly pathogenic avian influenza and low pathogenic avian influenza in poultry
- Infectious bursal disease (Gumboro disease)
- Marek's disease
- Newcastle disease
- Pullorum disease
- Turkey rhinotracheitis
7. Lagomorph diseases
- Rabbit haemorrhagic disease
8. Bee diseases
- Acarapisosis of honey bees
- American foulbrood of honey bees
- European foulbrood of honey bees
- Small hive beetle infestation (Aethina tumida)
- Tropilaelaps infestation of honey bees
- Varroosis of honey bees
9. Fish diseases
- Epizootic haematopoietic necrosis
- Infectious haematopoietic necrosis
- Spring viraemia of carp
- Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia
- Infectious pancreatic necrosis
- Infectious salmon anaemia
- Epizootic ulcerative syndrome
- Bacterial kidney disease (Renibacterium salmoninarum)
- Gyrodactylosis (Gyrodactylus salaris)
- Red sea bream iridoviral disease
10. Mollusc diseases
- Infection with Bonamia ostreae
- Infection with Bonamia exitiosa
- Infection with Marteilia refringens
- Infection with Mikrocytos mackini
- Infection with Perkinsus marinus
- Infection with Perkinsus olseni
- Infection with Xenohaliotis californiensis
11. Crustacean diseases
- Taura syndrome
- White spot disease
- Yellowhead disease
- Tetrahedral baculovirosis (Baculovirus penaei)
- Spherical baculovirosis (Penaeus monodon-type baculovirus)
- Infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis
- Crayfish plague (Aphanomyces astaci)
12. Other diseases
- Camel pox